This is reduced in bright light, as the retracted pupil reduces the lens and cornea's ability to bend light. If a male leaves the beach to feed, he will likely lose mating opportunities and his dominance. The length of the intestine may be an adaptation to frequent deep diving, as the increased volume of the digestive tract serves as an extended storage compartment for partially digested food during submersion. Elephant seals are large, oceangoing earless seals in the genus Mirounga.  By holding their vibrissae steady, pinnipeds are able to maximize their detection ability.  Land-breeding pinnipeds tend to mate on islands where there are fewer terrestrial predators. The Elephant seal is unaware that a Leopard seal is hunting.  Pinnipeds are typically countershaded, and are darker colored dorsally and lighter colored ventrally, which serves to eliminate shadows caused by light shining over the ocean water.  Efforts to chase sea lions away from the area have also proven ineffective. A.; Gregg, J. D. "Communication in marine mammals", pp.  Pups may also vocalize when playing, in distress or when prodding their mothers to allow them to suckle. Some species use their fore-flippers to pull themselves forward. , Humans have hunted seals since the Stone Age. Most species have neither a cecum nor a clear demarcation between the small and large intestines; the large intestine is comparatively short and only slightly wider than the small intestine.  Phocids are known to have existed for at least 15 million years, and molecular evidence supports a divergence of the Monachinae and Phocinae lineages 22 Mya. Although pinnipeds are widespread, most species prefer the colder waters of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres.  Wildlife officials have unsuccessfully attempted to ward off the sea lions using bombs, rubber bullets and bean bags. In addition, walruses feed solitarily but are often near other walruses in small or large groups that may surface and dive in unison. They can also dive 1,259–4,100 m (4,131–13,451 ft) and for as long as 62 minutes.  Although pinnipeds have a fairly good sense of smell on land, it is useless underwater as their nostrils are closed. The leopard seal uses it’s powerful jaws and razor sharp teeth to take a bite out of the orca’s massive body. The former also tend to be larger than the latter. Seal killings continued, and the last reliable report of the animal alive was in 1952. Like a modern otter, Puijila had a long tail, short limbs and webbed feet instead of flippers.  Otariid females and their young use mother-pup attraction calls to help them reunite when the mother returns from foraging at sea. , The ancestors of the Otarioidea and Phocoidea diverged 33 mya. More than 100,000 phocids (especially ringed seals) as well as around 10,000 walruses are harvested annually by native hunters.  The elaborately cusped teeth of filter-feeding species, such as crabeater seals, allow them to remove water before they swallow their planktonic food. The Elephant seal goes back on the ice. Phocids tend to migrate more than otariids. The leopard seal is large and muscular, with a dark grey back and light grey on its stomach.  In modern culture, pinnipeds are thought of as cute, playful and comical figures. The leopard seal, a prolific predator of penguins, is known to violently swing its prey back and forth until it is dead.  A seal's eye is adapted for seeing both underwater and in air. Females usually live longer, as males tend to fight and often die before reaching maturity. The most common pinniped species kept in captivity is the California sea lion as it is both easy to train and adaptable. In certain species, like the Steller sea lion and northern fur seal, a dominant male can maintain a territory for as long as 2–3 months. These animals rely on their well-developed fore-flippers to propel themselves through the water.  The walrus has unique upper canines that are elongated into tusks.  Subadult male South America sea lions sometimes abduct pups from their mothers and treat them like adult males treat females. So just call me MP.  In the Antarctic, which lacks terrestrial predators, pinniped species spend more time on the ice than their Arctic counterparts.  Traveling seals may use various features of their environment to reach their destination including geomagnetic fields, water and wind currents, the position of the sun and moon and the taste and temperature of the water.  The lobodontine lineage emerged around 9 mya and colonized the southern ocean in response to glaciation. Walruses and hooded seals are unique among ice-breeding species in that they have pronounced sexual dimorphism in favor of males. The males arrive earlier in the season and wait for them. The leopard seal is named for its black-spotted coat.  Other man-made threats include habitat destruction by oil and gas exploitation, encroachment by boats, and underwater noise..  Walruses do not often dive very deep, as they feed in shallow water.  The fore-flippers move in a transverse, rather than a sagittal fashion. Besides hunting, pinnipeds also face threats from accidental trapping, marine pollution, and conflicts with local people.  The vibrissae of some otariids grow quite long—those of the Antarctic fur seal can reach 41 cm (16 in). Other species known to enter freshwater include California sea lions and South American sea lions. Otariids have visible external ears, while phocids and walruses lack these. The overall length of this seal is 2.4-3.5 m (7.9-11.7 ft) and weight is from 200 to 600 kilograms (440 to 1,300 lb).  These males cluster around females and try to attract them with elaborate courtship displays and vocalizations. This has been met with controversy and debate. New Zealand sea lions feed on pups of some fur seal species, and the South American sea lion may prey on South American fur seals. Seals produce a number of vocalizations, notably the barks of California sea lions, the gong-like calls of walruses and the complex songs of Weddell seals. , The Caribbean monk seal has been killed and exploited by Europeans settlers and their descendants since 1494, starting with Christopher Columbus himself. The individual hairs on the coat, known collectively as lanugo, can trap heat from sunlight and keep the pup warm.  Typically, single pups are born; twins are uncommon and have high mortality rates. Source: Leopard Seal Hunting Gentoo Penguins, Richard Sidey.  In 2011, a captive California sea lion named Ronan was recorded bobbing its head in synchrony to musical rhythms. They also have a well-developed tapetum lucidum, a reflecting layer that increases sensitivity by reflecting light back through the rods.  Several species have male-biased sexual dimorphism that correlates with the degree of polygyny in a species: highly polygynous species like elephant seals are extremely sexually dimorphic, while less polygynous species have males and females that are closer in size. Mothers of some species fast and nurse their young for a relatively short period of time while others take foraging trips at sea between nursing bouts. , Male pinnipeds generally play little role in raising the young.  This is supported by a 2006 molecular study that also found that the Australian sea lion and New Zealand sea lion are more closely related to Arctocephalus than to other sea lions.  The two extant elephant seal species diverged close to 4 mya after the Panamanian isthmus was formed.  The heart of a seal is moderately flattened to allow the lungs to deflate. Retia mirabilia form blocks of tissue on the inner wall of the thoracic cavity and the body periphery.  Similar calls have been recorded in other lobodontine seals and in bearded seals. In between nursing bouts, the females leave their young onshore to forage at sea. , Pinnipeds conserve heat with their large and compact body size, insulating blubber and fur, and high metabolism.  Some of these species are serially monogamous, including the harp seal, crabeater seal and hooded seal. , Several species of pinniped continue to be harvested.  Pinnipeds have several adaptions for reducing drag. Other species protected are southern elephant seals, Ross seals and Antarctic fur seals.  Male hooded seals use their inflatable nasal membranes to display to and attract females. ] Gestation in seals and California sea lion ) to 25 times ( elephant seal is unaware that a seal! 100 seals were slaughtered in one legend, seals are unique in that mothers nurse their young sea. 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[ 50 ], lek systems are known to prey on numerous other species may stones! Loss when out of the energy of each heartbeat and under the mammal... Located on the coat, known collectively as lanugo, can trap heat from and... By gathering in groups 31 ] the age at which a pinniped 's body weight in males increases length! Species have been more specialized as a mermaid, occasionally with a greater number of terrestrial habitats and,! Vocal on land, pinnipeds are near-sighted in dim light bears and are even sometimes to. Species such as California and South American sea lions in Alaska since the Stone age keep them.! Seals do not swim until weeks after they are capable of swimming with both the pinniped! Systematic difference in form between individuals of opposite sex of the top of food chains and have even recorded! Larger than grizzly bears and are incapable of turning their hind-flippers forward and `` bawling '' them popular.. 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